Biology is only offered as individual courses in Grade 11 and 12. Prior to that, it is incorporated into Science. Below are the units from the provincial curriculum that the student will cover in each course.

We offer tutoring in all units of Biology 20 and 30.


  • Energy and Matter Exchange in the Biosphere

    • Balance is achieved through various biogeochemical cycles and the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. 

    • Examination of the maintenance of this balance and how various human activities have affected the balance.

  • Ecosystems and Population Change

    • Introduction of the concept of populations as a basic component of ecosystem structure.

    • Examination of population change through the process of natural selection.

  • Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

    • How energy from sunlight is transferred into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), and eventually into glucose.

    • How carbohydrates are oxidized to produce reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH), and eventually ATP.

    • How these cellular processes impact and are impacted by global systems.

  • Human Systems

    • How energy and matter are exchanged with the environment through the processes of gas exchange, digestion, excretion, circulation and the function of the motor system. 

    • How the defense system contributes to equilibrium by eliminating pathogenic organisms. 


  • Nervous and Endocrine Systems
    • Examination of the biological processes that mediate the interactions between humans and their environment to maintain equilibrium.
    • Examination of the interactions between the nervous and endocrine systems, leading to an examination of the functioning of the centra and peripheral nervous systems and their ability to sense the environment and respond to it.
  • Reproduction and Development
    • How the survival of the human species is ensured through reproduction.
    • How human differentiation is regulated by chemical control systems.
    • How cell differentiation and development in the human organism are regulated by a combination of genetic, endocrine, and environmental factors.
  • Cell Division, Genetics, and Molecular Biology
    • The processes of mitosis and meiosis.
    • Understanding of the basic rules and procedures associated with the transmission of genetic characteristics.
    • Explanation of classical genetics at the molecular level.
  • Population and Community Dynamics
    • Description of a community as a composite of populations in which individuals contribute to a gene pool that can change over time.
    • Explanation of the interaction of individuals in a population with one another and with members of other populations.
    • Explanation, in quantitative terms, of the change in populations over time.